How do I find materials from committee markups?
After a bill is first introduced in either chamber, it is referred to a committee, which may hear testimony about the measure and/or debate and amend the bill’s contents. These proceedings, commonly referred to as hearings and committee markups, are generally open to the public. If a committee approves a bill, it will be returned to the full chamber for further action, often accompanied by a written report. The report contains the purpose and scope of the measure and the reasons it should be approved by the chamber as a whole.
Committee markups are a type of hearing, but typically do not include testimony from individuals outside the committee or subcommittee. As with other hearings, markups may be published or unpublished. Because each committee sets its own rules, including whether to publish markups, the availability of markup records can vary by committee. Researchers interested in recent markups should first visit the committee’s website and look for documents related to hearings or committee activities.
Select committee markups are also available on the Government Publishing Office’s GovInfo. From Advanced Search, refine the Collection to “Congressional Hearings” and further refine the “Search In” fields to “Hearing Sub Type: Markup.”
Researchers interested in committee activities from past Congresses can use committee calendars, which include information about committee membership, rules, hearings, business meetings, markups, and conference reports. Most committees publish these calendars at the end of each legislative session, although they are generally not printed for several months after the conclusion of a Congress.
The Law Library of Congress has published research guides that can help researchers looking for markup materials:
For further information about committee markups and records, researchers can consult these online resources:
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